The official language of Bhutan is Dzongkha. While Dzongkha uses the same ‘ Ucen script as Tibetan – and the two languages are closely related – Dzongkha is sufficiently different that Tibetans cannot understand it. English is the medium of instruction in schools, so most educated people can speak it fluently. There are English signboards, books and menus throughout the country. Road signs and government documents are all written in both English and Dzongkha. The national newspaper, Kuensel, is published in two main languages: English and Dzongkha. In monastic schools Chokey, the classical Tibetan language is taught and used in writings.
In the eastern part of Bhutan most people speak Sharchop (meaning ‘language of east’), which is totally different from Dzongkha. In south, most people speak Nepali. As a result of the isolation of many parts of country, a number of languages other than Dzongkha and Sharchop survive. Some are so different that people from different parts of the country can’t understand each other. Butmthangkha is a language of Bumthang region, and it’s common for regional minorities have their own language. Other tongues in Bhutan’s Tower of Babel are Khengkha from Zhamgang, Kirtoep from Lhuentshe, Mangdep from Trongsa and Dzala from Trashi Yangtse.
Buddhism in Bhutan has a complex and rich visual traditional that can be seen over whelming. The bright and intricate mandalas decorating temples, porches, warthfull protective deities and the wheel of life all serve the same purpose.
In the 8th century, Guru Padmasamhba (the chief protagonist of the Vajrayana teachings of Buddhism), introduced Buddhism in Bhutan.
Buddhism is followed by almost seventy percent of population which the rest follows Hindu, specially people of Lhotshampas(southern Bhutanese),the descendants of Nepalese migrants.
Bhutan’s landscape is studded with a profusion of majestic dzongs, beautiful Goenpas (monasteries) and Chorten(stupas or pagodas),that are evidence of living spiritual culture. In addition we can see colourful prayer flags on the valleys, near Dzongs, temples and also on the top of the roofs. Moreover in every household has its own prayer room or altar (chosum) and generally celebrates an annual rituals (chogu). This is when prayers of thanksgiving are offered for the past as well as for the future well being of family.
It does, however, recognise the importance of Bhutan’s Buddhist heritage to Bhutan’s cultural identity.